#科技头条#【NASA为智能机器人提供探索宇宙计划,AI或将第一个找到外星人】

#科技头条#【NASA为智能机器人提供探索宇宙计划,AI或将第一个找到外星人】科学家说人类未来可能会在地面上操作机器人系统,实现虚拟探测。有些人主张机器人在经过配备设备后就可以独立工作了,这样他们能够在没有人为干预的情况下学习和适应周围环境。NASA喷气推进实验室工作的科学家们表示,执行的任务会配备足够智能的探头,宇宙上的工作将会允许“机器人代理”。http://t.cn/RoM61S8 http://www.looooker.com/?p=45806

Will an AI be the first to find alien life? NASA backs plans for smart robotic explorers that could scour the universe

  • Scientists say humans in orbit could operate robotic systems down at surface
  • Would allow for ‘robotic surrogate,’ so they can virtually experience environment
  • Some argue that robots could be equipped with intelligence to operate alone
  • Then, they could learn to study the environments with little human intervention 
Space agencies and private companies alike have ramped up efforts to bring humans further than ever before. But, according to a series of new studies, robots may be the ones leading the way in future space endeavours. Scientists say humans in orbit could operate robotic systems down at the surface by relying on telepresence, enabling virtual exploration – and, some even say artificially intelligent probes could learn to carry out missions almost entirely on their own. Scroll down for video 
 By deploying astronauts to a planet’s orbit, such as Mars, humans could control the instruments down below in real-time. And, this would allow them to essentially use a ‘robotic surrogate’ – meaning the researchers could experience the surface environment virtually

CURIOSITY ROVER GETS MORE FREEDOM

Curiosity is normally piloted remotely by humans, but signals can take up to 24 minutes to get from Earth to Mars. Nasa has decided to allow Curiosity's autonomous systems, which are used to pick out rocks to fire lasers at, more control to streamline missions. Curiosity's AEGIS software, or Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science, is used to direct and fire Curiosity's ChemCam. It selects targets to zap with ChemCam's laser, which vaporises small amounts of rock or soil and studies the gas that burns off. The software uses computer vision to search out edges in the landscape; if it detects enough edges, there's a good chance it has found a distinct object. Then the software can rank, filter and prioritize objects based on the characteristics the team is looking for. AEGIS can also be used for 'fine-scale pointing'. When Curiosity's operators aren't quite sure they'll hit a very narrow vein in a rock on the first try, they sometimes use this to fine-tune the pointing.
Scientists working at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab suggest missions could soon make use of probes that are intelligent enough to work, for the most part, autonomously. As missions become more challenging, probes should be designed to carry out their tasks mostly without human intervention, and even learn to adapt to changing environments, the scientists explain in a new study published to Science Robotics. Such probes could identify the difference between normal conditions, and a storm, for example, or even the changes in seasons. By equipping robots with the intelligence to identify themselves what is important for study versus what might not be, they could even be used to study distant systems such as Alpha Centauri – because by the time the information gets back to Earth, the scientists who launched the mission will have been replaced by their successors. Currently, communication with space probes is limited by the delays that result from the extreme distance. Between the moon and Earth, for example, light takes 1.3 seconds to travel each way – speeds that are far slower than human reaction times. And as scientists look toward further targets, it could take as much as 40 minutes to transmit signals. ‘During the Apollo missions, the astronauts were making scientific observations and relaying what they saw back to scientists on Earth,’ said Kip Hodges, Foundation Professor in ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration.
‘Both were collaborating on decisions about observations and which samples to collect and bring back to Earth to yield the most scientific value. ‘This worked reasonably well for lunar explorations, but the time delay is likely to dramatically reduce the quality and scientific value of such collaborations in exploring faraway places like Mars.’
Currently, communication with space probes is limited by the delays that result from the extreme distance. The Curiosity rover (pictured), for example, is normally piloted remotely by humans, but signals can take up to 24 minutes to get from Earth to Mars
In a new study, also published to the journal Science Robotics, Hodges and colleagues argue that ‘exploration telepresence’ could be the key to future missions. By deploying astronauts to a planet’s orbit, such as Mars, humans could control the instruments down below in real-time. And, this would allow them to essentially use a ‘robotic surrogate’ – meaning the researchers could experience the surface environment virtually, through the eyes of the robot, and carry out investigations through this vessel. ‘Even though signals commanding observations and measurements take only minutes or tens of minutes to reach Mars, a single research activity on Mars, from command to data return, can take a day or more,’ Hodges says.

HOW MICRO-GRAVITY AFFECTS THE BODY

There is a loss of body weight and calcium. Bodily fluids are redistributed, with less in the lower extremities, and more in the upper body. Without the pulls of normal gravity, blood doesn't flow downhill, but pools in the extremities including the face, hands and feet, causing a puffy appearance. And without that downward pressure, height increases. Body mass often decreases with a loss of muscular tissue from nitrogen depletion; the veins and arteries of the legs become weaker, anaemia occurs, accompanied by a reduction in blood count. The calcium loss from bones subjected to extended microgravity takes place at 10 times the rate of an elderly person suffering from osteoporosis.
This new approach, on the other hand, could work to keep the delays, also known as latencies, more in line with human reaction times. ‘Telepresence means humans operating robotic systems from a distance close enough where the delay between human action and robotic response is a fraction of a second,’ Hodges says. Ultimately, they say, the objective is to get humans themselves to the surface of these distant worlds. But leading up to this ambitious goal, exploration telepresence could be a major step. ‘Today we do good science on Mars using long time-delay telerobotics, but we could do much better science much more quickly with humans on the surface,’ Hodges notes. ‘Exploration telepresence would be a reasonable compromise until that day comes. ‘There are important targets for scientific exploration for which we currently don’t have the technology to land humans safely. ‘Exploration telepresence could greatly expand the number of destinations where humans can do great science.’ Hodges and team aren’t alone in thinking robots will be critical in exploring other planets, especially in areas that could be unsafe for humans.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4629806/Virtual-exploration-future-space-science.html

Comments are closed.

无觅相关文章插件